|METHODOLOGY of the ROMANIAN ETHNOGRAPHIC ATLAS
by Professor Ion Ghinoiu
Publication of language atlases, followed closely by the ethnographic atlases, began as a natural reaction against the standardization of language and traditions reported in in Western European countries since the nineteenth century. After the first linguistic atlases were published, there followed numerous ethnolinguistic atlases (France, Spain, Switzerland, Italy), popular culture (Sweden), ethnographic (Austria, Germany, Sweden, Poland, Switzerland, Belgium and others), historical-cultural (former USSR), ethnological (former Yugoslavia).
To collect material land have been set, between 1967 and 1969, Atlas thematic overview and a comprehensive questionnaire experienced in the area “Iron Gates” (counties Mehedinti and Caras-Severin), and in villages-Maneciu Ungureni (Prahova), Pa˘unes¸ti ( Vrancea County) and in several localities in northern Oltenia. In the year 1972 published 20 questionnaires: estates, households, Housing, Agriculture, Livestock, gardening and fruit-grower, textile plants cultivation, hunting, transport, growth of silk worms, bees Growth, Food, crafts, Plant, Customs at birth, the wedding customs, habits to death, habits related occupations, habits and other habits calendar. After application of these questionnaires in 70 villages in Oltenia and Muntenia West, decided to reduce the number of questions and adding questionnaires and folk art. In 1976 published a restructured form Questionnaire AER, with 1,200 questions and over 3000 subîntreba˘ri. For practical reasons, it was divided into eight installments: Location – home, Housing – Interior, Occupations, crafts – Plant folk, folk, folk art, customs and habits family calendar. Questionnaire surprised the two phenomena ethnographic moments of reference of the century XX century: between 1900 and conducting field research (1972-1982). The questionnaire included open questions, which gave the subjects interviewed can answer without being influenced in any collection, and closed questions that require them to answer and fall into one or more variants proposed.
The second instrument is the Atlas, the municipalities that would apply the questionnaire, was developed after the number and distribution of population and rural settlements recorded in the census of 15 March 1966. Several proposed alternatives to choose, finally, to a network of 536 municipalities. The representation of rural settlements in the Atlas was a village of about 20. Were elected village representative for various areas of popular culture and villages with special resonance for local history and culture and national. Many have covered so-called white areas, unexplored at the time of ethnography. To boost interdisciplinary research, were chosen and localities already investigated by linguists, sociologists, anthropologists. Proportion to the population in rural recensa˘mânmtul recorded on 15 March 1966 were surveyed and 60 villages with the national minorities: Bulgarians, Czechs (pemi), Croats (caras¸oveni), German (Saxon, Swabian), Hungarians, Szeklers, Russians (Lipovans ), Serbs, Slovaks, Tartars, Turks and Ukrainians. Gypsies, who have declared ethnicity in the census taken as below 1% of the total population of Romania, have not been investigated.
Survey of land
Thoroughly prepared, the most extensive campaign for the registration of land documents, oral history was conducted in the years 1972-1982. The report of the inquiry, culega˘torii selected subjects by profession, age, sex. Exposed to risks of all kinds, culega˘torii, mostly women, have gone through the most difficult operation of the Atlas, the campaign field.
Were tested two methods of investigation: the man and the village, collected a whole set for the implementation of questionnaires used technique in 70 villages of Oltenia and Muntenia West, and man and a theme, a specialist for each subject a questionnaire. In the first possibility, supported by Romulus Vulcanescu, a village network had looked at a single specialist in the second, supported by Paul Petrescu, seven. With its disadvantages, the second solution was generalized nationally. For a short period of inquiry was called by three researchers at the Institute of Humanistic Sciences in Craiova and more Ethnography of county museums. There were over 18,000 subjects of different ages and professions, many born in the nineteenth century, and have completed four million file questionnaires. Over 6 000 questionnaires filled in on the ground, plus the 150,000 photographs, drawings, sketches, etc., constitute the richest ethnographic archive in Romania. Many of the information recorded on the ground disappeared from ethnographic landscape. Therefore, the oral history archive treasure in Romanian Ethnographic Atlas constitute a vast source of documentation for future research ethnology, anthropology, dialectology, psychology, social history and other disciplines.
Maps of author
Material processing and mapping were completed during 1982-1989 and, sporadically, until the year 2005 by members of staff atlas of the Institute of Ethnography and Folklore and the three associates of Craiova. Most of the legends of maps are types of phenomena mapped. The types and subtypes, variants and subvariantele mapped phenomena are recorded on maps by colored signs. Data referred to the material mapped is recorded in title and maps, often in a particular paragraph of legends, called Evolution, by three colors: blue for the beginning of the century (1900), green for the period from which the survey ( 1972-1982) and red for ethnographic reality remaining unchanged at the two points of reference.
Each drawing of Atlas is a thematic connection consists of one or two maps, the legend translated into three languages circulation (English, French, German), photos, drawings and sketches of the phenomenon mapped. To be read simultaneously in the mirror, the theme is displayed on two pages: map title and legend in Romanian on sound, and title, translated into national languages and illustration odd page.
Cartographic base of Atlas
Material has been mapped by the authors on maps at a scale of one million (480 / 620 mm), then larger cartographic scales and much smaller sizes: one million and a half, two and three million. The format of Atlas, is the map of Romania at a scale of two million. Preparing maps for the author was used to map basic Atlas National Geography adapted for use by researchers ethnography. Ethnographic Atlas combines perfectly with the traditional mapping modern computer.
Romania has a potentially very rich hunting. In antiquity were famous for hunting and deer hunting in the Middle Ages with domnes¸ti falcon and dogs. Depending on the behavior of animals and birds hunted or trapped, you can choose different techniques: the bait, imitating urletelor, screams and whistle hunted animals and birds. Organize in cete, hunting animals to practice ha˘ituirea fences, pens or nets cleverly camouflaged. On paths crossing animals are arranged holes traps are put on different chains and hooks for catching animals and birds. Introduction of firearms and the laws of health houses have removed most of these techniques of hunting.
Codrul is a fundamental theme of folklore and of all green leaf is customary in popular songs. Mythical representations of the forest (Muma, daughter and Forest Man, Pa˘dureanca) sacrii trees (oak and fir tree), fiarelor Forest (wolf and bear) present living habits and beliefs in contemporary folk. Myth representative civilization is wood Muma Forest, mistress everywhere you born, grow and live in the Carpathian forests. Muma is one of Mumelor who lives in the forests, old trees in the hollow, the plant called Muma Forest. It is sad but a parent who suffer are jeles¸te, sighing, snorting, howling because people cut infants, the trees in the forest . He knows all the trees (the children) of forest on breastfeeding when they are small, they grow up quarrel that twist, it shouts the name or nickname, curses him to be slaughtered by humans or by lightning thunder when vexed. As sea goddess, this may be good or bad. Tâlharii punished and tormented help people, show the right of children lost in the woods.
In villages in the northern counties of Arges, Dambovita and partly in Vâlcea ceremony of death and rebirth annual tree divinity is practiced on the night of 25/26 October. It is a formal night equaled only by the spectacular night of old year New Year. Around a huge pyre lit youth in a village high (mountain, hill, mound) gather the entire draft settlement. In the old forms in the middle gra˘mezii Lumber and cetinii pine is set to be incinerated strain cut a tree in the forest. Around rugului funerary maintained with dry wood, straw and used tires of cars, is shout in chorus, the formula containing “Let’s focu on Sâmedru.” Women divided as to a funeral, pretzels, fruit and drink. There, while logs or timber (body fitomorf) was destroyed by the flames eat, drink, be joked, play. When the expected collapse tree was incinerated when showing symbolic rebirth god dead. By direction of the celestial body fall (jarul or ta˘ciunii lit) to assess which of feciori and girls were to marry in the new year. On departure, the participants took stew that fertilize the gardens and orchards. Unlike death and rebirth divinity at Christmas December 25, substituted or Buturuga of logs burned in house fire on the hearth, fire ritul funeral of Sâmedru held outdoors.
After Muma Forest and girl, the best known in the mythical representation Dates are popular bear and wolf. At the discretion of geographical Romania bears împerecheaza˘ is at the end of summer and early autumn, a time when significant harm herds of sheep, orchards and Prisaca. This time is marked in the popular calendar day August 1. By Country Hateg bear is now a leg up calf and is said aloud: “- Na Bear.” Santa Marin important god of Panteon Carpathian, is celebrated in Martinii Winter (1-3 February), when the girl, Ursului Day (February 2) and Ursului Saturday (a week before Palm Sunday to deliver). The first three days of February is dedicated to Martin de Winter, owners of bears. The most powerful and most dangerous of them, Martin the Great, is celebrated on 2 February, at Candlemas Day or Ursului. According to tradition, would bear out this day from the couch to watch the shadows on snow. If it’s cold, fog and sees not the shade, pull down their lair, draw a game, go to the river, the mouth of a drinking water and they see things through the forest. Conversely, if the time is nice, it sees the sun and its shadow on the snow falls again in winter because lair will take 40 days. In beliefs, fairy tales and folk legends, the bear is a strange forest creature: girl chicks winter, while the other lives waiting warm season, if time is good, in housing, if ugly, resume his work in the woods, they found bridge over a river hurts when no batter found a tree and put a bridge, etc.. People associate this behavior with the bears of whimsy at the end of winter and early spring.
Representation mythical female mistress water, which is seen on the water only at night is called, in Bukovina, we know water. As stature is high and dressed in white, with huge breasts on giving back. May occur as a mermaid: half woman and half fish. The weather and the nights of the month comes to water, bathe, walk and shake it on ulit¸ele village as a cloud: “If you give him peace, do not say anything to anybody, but no, you mut¸es¸te you slutes¸te. Walk until midnight, when the singing starts cocos¸ii. It draws on the drowning man saying: “The clock arrived, / na man came!” (Moldova, Bucovina). Daughters esteem standing or flowing water are called water girls. Top of body is a woman with disheveled hair, the bottom tail of the fish. Unsurpassed in beauty, with white wings instead of hands, the girls would be water inventatoarele songs. Before starting to sing, amounts of water waves as the wind stirred. Then the girls come to the surface water on the ridge wave, play, Sing and sprayed with water. Once the waves break, begin to sing with heavenly voice, slowly, then increasingly louder. When you end the song dive, swim under water and up to some distance other waves that come out, play and sing other songs. If you are seen by a son, it fascinated by the beauty of bodies and songs, try to reach by hand. Then either go down in the bottom water or drowning man is the boy (Bukovina).
Fitogeografica˘ resource on which to develop the pastoral landscape are natural pastures and fânet¸ele. Later, they were added, fodder plants cultivated by humans. For efficient use of pasture and fânet¸elor at great distance from the village, sometimes hundreds of miles, men have been easier to go up there to carry home than feedingstuffs. Far from home, they built shelters specific (rooms, hall, Stan, trumpet, huts, pens, oboare) of road salt and sheep, fountains etc.. In the Middle Ages Carpathian pastors are moving with herds to the Black Sea and Adriatic shores to Pusta Hungary and Kuban steppes. Movements-and-go between the mountains and herds like pie on fixed routes imemorabile of time, were called the Roads sheep. iobanii C high-road crosses over the stone guidelines for development and appreciation herds distances by days and weeks went by. Pastor was beaten a man who knew how the world works, scoto citor and determined at any time in dismounting, as as bold and removed. Often, these thresher with other places in the country, bringing news about the Turkish army and that Ta˘ta˘ra˘s¸ti teau prepare to attack the Romanian Countries.
Sa˘rba˘torile dedicate cres¸terii animalelor s¸i agriculturii împart Calendarul popular în doua˘ anotimpuri de baza˘: iarna patronata˘ de lup, personificare a întunericului s¸i frigului, vara patronata˘ de cal, personificare a luminii s¸i ca˘ldurii. Între cele doua˘ divinita˘t¸i zoomorfe, Lupul s¸i Calul , s¸i as¸trii care ma˘soara˘ timpul oamenilor, Luna s¸i Soarele , sunt tainice lega˘turi: lupul este asociat cu astrul lunar ca˘reia îi cânta˘ noaptea, precum câinele, urlând, calul cu astrul solar pe care îl ajuta˘, conform unor legende populare, sa˘ urce zilnic de la ra˘sa˘rit pâna˘ la zenit. Sa˘rba˘torile s¸i obiceiurile calendaristice dedicate divinita˘t¸ii cabaline sunt diurne, cele dedicate lupului sunt nocturne.
Peisajul etnografic pomi-viticol, subtip al peisajului agrar, cuprinde bazinele pomicole (Subcarpat¸ii Munteniei s¸i Olteniei, nordul Transilvaniei, Dealurile Vestice, Podis¸ul Sucevei, Podis¸ul Moldovei s¸i podgoriile României (Dra˘ga˘s¸ani, Dealul Mare, Odobes¸ti, Ias¸i, Cotnari, Murfatlar, Segarcea, Târnave, Bistrit¸a, Mures¸, Arad). Personalitatea peisajului pomi-viticol este data˘ de extensiunea plantat¸iilor de vii s¸i livezi, de ada˘posturi specifice pentru pa˘stratul vinului s¸i t¸uicii (pivnit¸e, crame, poverne, beciuri), de instalat¸ii tehnice de preparare a vinului s¸i t¸uicii (vinarsului, palincii), de unelte s¸i mijloace de transport adaptate pentru ca˘rat fructele, strugurii, vinul s¸i t¸uica. În cea mai compacta˘ zona˘ pomicola˘ a României (Subcarpat¸ii Olteniei s¸i Munteniei) locuint¸a a suferit însemnate modifica˘ri: casa la nivelul solului a fost îna˘lt¸ata˘ pentru a la˘sa, la parter, loc pivnit¸ei, spat¸iu necesar depozita˘rii fructelor s¸i butoaielor cu t¸uica˘.
Peisajul turistic, în plin avânt, ga˘ses¸te, în sânul peisajelor etnografice de veche tradit¸ie (forestier, piscicol, pastoral s¸i agrar) excelente condit¸ii de dezvoltare.
Dintre reprezenta˘rile mitice fecioare, cele mai îndra˘gite sunt Sânzienele (Oltenia, Banat, Transilvania, Maramures¸, Bucovina), numite s¸i Dra˘gaice ( Muntenia, Dobrogea, sudul s¸i centrul Moldovei). Sânziana se nas¸te la moartea Babei Dochia, cres¸te miraculos pâna˘ la 24 iunie când înflores¸te planta ce-i poarta˘ numele (sânziana sau dra˘gaica). În cetele feminine de Dra˘gaica˘ organizate în sudul Munteniei pâna˘ la mijlocul secolului al XX-lea, fata care juca rolul zeit¸ei agrare era îmbra˘cata˘ mireasa˘, cu rochie alba˘ s¸i cu cununa˘ împletita˘ din flori de sânziene (dra˘gaica˘) pe cap, însemn al cununiei. În timpul solstit¸iului de vara˘ zeit¸a fecundita˘t¸ii, Sânziana sau Dra˘gaica, baga˘ bob spicului de grâu, da˘ miros plantelor de leac, vindeca˘ bolile s¸i suferint¸ele oamenilor, în special bolile copiilor, apa˘ra˘ holdele de grindina˘, furtuni s¸i vijelie, urses¸te fetele de ma˘ritat etc. Când i se nesocotes¸te ziua, aceasta stârnes¸te vârtejuri s¸i vijelii, aduce grindina˘, ia oamenii pe sus s¸i îi îmbolna˘ves¸te, lasa˘ florile fa˘ra˘ leac s¸i miros.
Coroana împletita˘ asta˘zi din floarea de sânziana˘ (dra˘gaica˘) s¸i din spice de grâu în dimineat¸a zilei de 24 iunie este o efigie divina˘ cu puteri miraculoase: purtata˘ pe cap de o fecioara˘ în ceremonialul numit Dansul Dra˘gaicei simbolizeaza˘ zeit¸a agrara˘; aga˘t¸ata˘ la fereastra˘, în stâlpii port¸ilor, în crucile din hotar s¸i din cimitir apa˘ra˘ oamenii, animalele s¸i holdele de stihiile naturii (grindina˘, furtuna˘, vijelie, inundat¸ie); aruncata˘ pe acoperis¸ul casei sau al s¸urii indica˘, prin anume semne daca˘ cel ca˘ruia ia fost menita˘, a confect¸ionat-o sau a azvârlit-o va tra˘i sau va muri, daca˘ fata se va ca˘sa˘tori în cursul anului s¸i cum îi va fi ursitul (tâna˘r sau ba˘trân, frumos sau urât), daca˘ va fi sa˘na˘tos sau bolnav, daca˘ va avea noroc sau paguba˘ în casa˘. Împletirea Cununii de Sânziene s¸i obiceiurile legate de acestea sunt atestate la românii de pretutindeni.
Aria de ra˘spândire a cântecelor funerare, compacta˘ la începutul secolului al XX-lea în sud-vestul s¸i centrul României (Gorj, Mehedint¸i, Caras¸-Severin, Timis¸, Bihor) s¸i relativ compacta˘ în sudul Transilvaniei (sudul judet¸elor Alba, Hunedoara, Sibiu, Bras¸ov), trimitea puternice tentacule în nord (Bistrit¸a-Na˘sa˘ud, Mures¸), în judet¸ele din Moldova (Suceava, Botos¸ani, Neamt¸, Ias¸i, Vaslui, Vrancea, Galat¸i), Republicii Moldova s¸i, în sud, la românii din Banatul sârbesc s¸i de pe Valea Timocului. În zonele în care nu au fost atestate cântecele funerare (Zorile, Cântecul Bradului, Cântecele de Priveghi s¸i altele), funct¸ia lor a fost preluata˘, part¸ial, de bocetele versificate. Cântece asema˘na˘toare cu cele din Cartea româneasca˘ a mort¸ilor nu au fost atestate la alte popoare europene, motiv pentru care acestea au fost incluse gres¸it, pâna˘ la marele etnomuzicolog Constantin Bra˘iloiu, în categoria bocetelor.
Întrucât moartea este receptata˘ ca o disociere a sufletului de trup, românii practica˘ un biritual funerar: plecarea trupului la trei sau patru zile (înhumarea) s¸i plecarea sufletului la 40 de zile de la moarte (Slobozirea apei sau izvorului). Secvent¸a cea mai tensionata˘ a obiceiurilor de înmormântare este ultimul drum, repetit¸ie s¸i init¸iere pentru lumea de dincolo. Pe drumul concret, care leaga˘ casa din sat de mormântul din cimitir, defunctul este însot¸it de cei ra˘mas¸i în viat¸a˘ care îi dau ultimele sfaturi, îi pla˘tesc va˘mile, îi aleg locurile de odihna˘ s¸i calea cea buna˘ spre cimitir etc. Dupa˘ înmormântare, când mortul ra˘mâne singur, trebuie sa˘ aplice pas cu pas cunos¸tint¸ele înva˘t¸ate în cele trei zile înainte de înmormântare s¸i exemplificate pe ultimul drum, cel al cimitirului.
 Atlasul Etnografic Român , vol. I, Habitatul : As¸ezarea, Gospoda˘ria, Locuint¸a, Amenajarea interiorului, Cimitirul ; vol. II, Ocupat¸iile : Cultivarea pa˘mântului, Cres¸terea animalelor, Sericicultura, Apicultura, Vâna˘toarea, Pescuitul s¸i Transportul ; vol. III: Tehnologia populara˘ M es¸tes¸ugurile, Instalat¸iile tehnice populare, Alimentat¸ia ; vol. IV: Man ifesta˘rile artistice Portul, Arta populara˘ ; vol. V Manifesta˘rile spirituale : Obiceiurile de la nas¸tere ca˘sa˘torie s¸i înmormântare, Sa˘rba˘torile s¸i obiceiurile calendaristice, Mitologia .